As opposed to dry or dust cyclones, which separate solids from gasses, hydrocyclones separate solids or different phase fluids from the bulk fluid. A hydrocyclone comprises a cylindrical shaped feed part with tangential feed; an overflow part with vortex finder; a conical part with an apex. A cyclone has no moving parts
Product is fed into the hydrocyclone tangentially under a certain pressure. This creates a centrifugal movement, pushing the heavier phase outward and downward alongside the wall of the conical part. The decreasing diameter in the conical part increases the speed and so enhances the separation. Finally, the concentrated solids are discharged through the apex. The vortex finder in the overflow part creates a fast rotating upward spiral movement of the fluid in the centre of the conically shaped housing. The fluid is discharged through the overflow outlet.
The following parameters are decisive for good cyclone operation:
A hydrocyclone showing the paths of fluid flow.
1. low equipment cost
2. easy mounting and dismantling
3. convenient maintenance
4. small floor space required
5. low capital expenditure
6. large processing capacity
7. a large fluctuation of process.